Translation of DASS 21 into Bangla and validation among medical students- Alim SMAHM et al.

Standard scale to assess the symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress among MBBS students are essential to take necessary steps to treat or prevent any psychiatric morbidity. But there was no such convenient tool in Bangla to measure the stated symptoms. With an objective to obtain a convenient scale to measure severity of above symptoms, short version of Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS 21) was translated into Bangla and the study was carried out to validate this Bangla version with permission from the author of the original instrument. Two translations and back translations were carried out. A harmonized version was produced after meetings by persons involved in translation process in meetings. After pretesting on ten students and reviewing by panel of experts, finalized Bangla version of DASS 21 (DASS 21 -BV) was obtained. A cross sectional study was carried out among MBBS students of Pabna Medical College, Pabna using purposive sampling technique to validate this scale. They were given both Bangla and English version of the scale 3 to 7 days apart. Analysis was done on 15 samples. Correlation for depression subscale was 0.976, anxiety subscale was 0.917 and stress subscale was 0.931. Correlation was significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Cronbach’s Alpha for Depression, Anxiety and Stress subscales were 0.987, 0.957, 0.964 respectively. This Validated Bangla version of DASS 21 can be used to measure severity of depression among medical students and persons having similar academic background treatable. Bang J Psychiatry 2014,28(2):67-70

The level of functional dependency and independency among the elderly people of old care homes in Bangladesh- Mahmud MHS et al.

The level of functional dependency of elderly is increasing day by day. The old care homes have been markedly increased in recent years in Bangladesh. The purpose of the study was to identify the level of functional dependency and independency among activities of daily living for the elderly people of old care homes in Bangladesh. A cross sectional study was conducted with a structured and close ended interviewer administered questionnaire to collect information from 144 elderly people of five old care homes through convenient sampling technique. The results showed that, 38 participants were fully functional (score 6), 56 participants had score 4 and they had moderate impairment, 40 participants score was 2 or less which indicated severe functional impairment and 10 participants were totally dependent (score 0). The study also revealed that 58% of the elderly people in the age group 60-65 years were independent and 70% of the elderly people belonging to age group >70 were totally dependent. However, it has been evident that percentage of independency decreases with the increase of age. It was also found that respondents‘ at the age of 65 years and above were functionally dependent. This study also recommends for occupational therapy service in old care home. Bang J Psychiatry 2014,28(2):62-66

Major depressive disorder in different age groups and quality of life- Talukder US et al.

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a significant public health problem due to its impact on the quality of life. The aim of the study was to determine the presentation of depression in different age group and quality of life among the respondents. This was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted from May, 2012 to February, 2013 among 65 patients aged 18 to 65 years with major depressive disorder in both outpatient and inpatient departments of National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), Dhaka by using convenient sampling technique. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersText version (DSM-IV-TR), Beck Depression Inventory and World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale, Brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) were used to diagnose depressive disorder, to measure severity of depressive illness and Quality of Life (QOL) respectively. Level of depression was compared with the QOL. Quality of life deteriorated in patients with depression. Presence and level of depression was compared in different age groups of depressed patients. The results showed that most of the depressed people (17) were found in the age group of 21-25 years and most of the patients were severely depressed which was thirty nine (39). The study revealed that young people were mostly depressed and their quality of life was decreasing. lt needs further study to explore more information about pattern of presentation of depression and its effect on the quality of life. Bang J Psychiatry 2014,28(2):58-61

Psychotherapy for child and adolescent with psychiatric disorder attending in National Institute of Mental Health, Dhaka- Uddin MZ et al.

Psychotherapy for child and adolescent with psychiatric disorder is relatively a newer concept in Bangladesh. This cross sectional study was done to determine the pattern of psychotherapy provided by the psychotherapy department for children and adolescents with psychiatric disorder in National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) from June 2010 to November 2014. Total 121 samples were taken purposefully from the records of psychotherapy department where data were collected retrospectively using check list. Results showed that among respondents more were boys than girls (64.5% vs. 35.5%) whereas their mean (±SD) age was 12.1 (±3.2) years. Majority (47.9%) of them were within class six to class ten. Most of the respondents (89%) were referred from the outpatient department and 11% were referred by inpatient department. Conduct disorder (27.3%), conversion disorder (13.2%), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (12.4%) and intellectual developmental disorder (9.1%) were common diagnoses of the respondents. It was found that 74.4% respondents attended up to one to five psychotherapy sessions and cognitive behavior therapy (38%) and behavior therapy (25.6%) were most commonly used psychotherapy. Though 60.3% of the respondents improved to certain extent in psychotherapy sessions, patient’s dropout rate was found as 55.4%. Bang J Psychiatry 2014,28(2):53-57

Common behavioral problems among patients with dementia attending in tertiary care hospitals in Dhaka city- Tarannum S et al.

Elderly people are increasing day by day both in developing and developed country due to development of new treatment, increased awareness of people and improved health facilities. This present study was conducted with the aim to identify behavioral problems according to severity of dementia. This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Psychiatry and Department of Neuro-medicine of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh and in National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), Sher-E-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh from September 2013 to March 2015. A total 150 patients were selected purposefully; severity of dementia was graded according to Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and another questionnaire was applied to detect behavioral problems of patients. In this study mild dementia was found as the most frequent (38%), followed by severe dementia (35.3%) and moderate dementia (26.7%). The results indicated that behavioral problem was more common in severe dementia. Behavioral problem was more common in severe dementia than in mild and moderate dementia. Among behavioral problems sleep disturbance and sexual disturbance were statistically significant This study provides information about pattern of behavioral problems among patients with dementia. Liaison approach with other discipline may improve quality of life of these patients treatable. Bang J Psychiatry 2014,28(2):50-52

Attitudes towards psychiatry among undergraduate medical students – Sarker MR et al.

Mental health is the most neglected and stigmatized branch of medical science in Bangladesh. Attitudes towards psychiatry are an important determination for selection of the subject as career by the undergraduate medical students. The objective of this study was to determine the attitudes of undergraduate medical students towards psychiatry and related factors. It was across sectional study conducted from May 2013 to September 2013 among 1st and 5th year medical students of Rajshahi Medical College, Rajshashi and Shaheed Shahrawardi Medical College, Dhaka. Results showed that only 2.6% of 5th year medical students wanted to be specialized in psychiatry and none of 1st year medical students wanted to be specialized in psychiatry. All of them (100% and 98.7%) agreed with the statement that psychiatric research has made good strides in advancing care of major mental disorder and majority students of both groups were (96% and 86.6% respectively) with the statement that psychiatry was a rapidly expanding frontier of medicine. Around two-third of the students (79.3% and 82.7% respectively) perceived psychiatric treatment as being helpful. Fifty nine (76.6%) of 5th year students and forty one (55.7%) of 1st year students did not agree that psychiatrists frequently abuse their legal power to hospitalize patients against their will. Positive opinions on attitudes of undergraduate medical students towards psychiatry became strengthen further following exposure to psychiatry lectures and clerkship in psychiatry ward. Bang J Psychiatry 2014,28(2):45-49

Psycho-social stressors and life events of the patients with conversion disorder: a study in a tertiary care hospital in north east zone of Bangladesh – Roy S et al.

The symptoms of conversion disorder arise in response to stressful situations. The objective of the study was to evaluate the frequency of various psychosocial stressors and socio-demographic characteristics in patients with Conversion disorder. This was a descriptive Cross sectional study conducted in the Department of Psychiatry of Jalalabad Ragib Rabeya Medical College Hospital, Sylhet, Bangladesh during the period from March 2011 to February 2013 among 240 admitted patients with conversion disorder satisfying inclusion and exclusion criteria who were consecutively selected as study group. This study revealed that the most of the patients (62.5%) were below the age of 25 years with female predominance (90.4%). Among the patients, 67.5% came from joint family, 62.1% from rural area and 71.7% from the families with income within 10,000-20,000 BDT per month. Also 62.5% patients experienced seizure whereas 22.9% experienced mixed symptoms. Psychosocial stressors were clearly identified in 87.5% of the patients. The stressors in our population in order of frequency were disturbed relation with in-laws (20.8%), failure in examination or study problem (20%), disturbed relation with spouse (15.4%), husband staying abroad (13.3%), love problems (11.2%), job stress or more work-load (11.2%), relationship problem with family members or parents (9.6%), pampered child (3.3%), demand of marriage (3.3%), marriage against will (2.9%), death of a close family member (2.1%), physical illness (2.1%), demand of going abroad (1.7%), issue less (1.7%) and financial crisis (1.2%). In this study, a large number of stressors were identified in patients with conversion disorder. The pattern of the stressors in our subjects was unique to our population and most of these stressors were easily treatable. Bang J Psychiatry 2014,28(2):41-44